HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2020 20:27:18 GMT 国产久久草

家居建材行业“反展厅现象”初现 实体店更具优势

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京密云共有产权房今起申购 如剩余将部分留作科学城人才用房 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

索菲亚家居上半年盈利1.35亿 同比增长四成

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Two Chinese universities have been placed in the top 20 of this year's Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, according to data released last Thursday.
该部门期望今年消费增长仍然能够强有力地带动经济增长。
美国财政部门最新数据表明印度九月份持有的美国政府债券达到800亿美元,十月份减持美国政府债券到775亿美元——这也是三个月来的最低点。
而中国工商银行排在榜单的第十位,是该榜单上排名最高的中国企业。
截至德葡之战,本届世界杯已经结束了12场比赛,场均进球3.42个。预计尼日利亚对阵伊朗的比赛进球数将拉低这个统计,不过,只要本场比赛或随后的美加之战能够斩获至少一球,世界杯就会迎来场均进球三粒的第六天。历史上,平均达到如此进球数的还要追溯到1958年瑞典世界杯,也是贝利横空出世的一届。其中,12支球队在仅仅35场比赛中,场均进球3.6个。
排在榜单第三位的是31岁的克丽茜·泰根,她在过去的12个月里赚得1350万美金,首次跻身榜单。
comfort

['tmpj?n]
自从美国的民权运动以及欧洲敞开国界以来,多元文化主义已经兴盛数十载,这些问题似乎是一种突然的逆转。
stick
楼市终于出现反弹。S&P/Case-Shiller指数显示,2012年前九个月全国房价上涨7%。与此同时,住宅建筑业正在发力,给建筑工人、承包商和建筑商带来了更多工作机会。5月份以来建筑工作增加了2.9万个左右。券商Miller Tabak & Co.经济学家威尔金森(Andrew Wilkinson)指出,建筑市场的就业环境已经明显解冻。解冻的不只是建筑业。为装修住宅的美国人提供服务的零售企业也将需要招人。[qh]
数百所国内高校的2017届、2015届和2013届毕业生、共281万人参与了这项调查。

Footnotes

  • 成都11部门联合开展房地产市场秩序 专项整治行动
  • Meanwhile, producer prices were deflating at a rate of -5.9 per cent, a six-year low, for a third straight month.

法国兴业银行(Societe Generale)国际策略师基特?朱克斯(Kit Juckes)说,过去30年破灭的三个世界级金融大泡沫背后,都是“美联储(Fed)太久时间将政策利率维持在名义经济增长率之下”。
最后,不管你是什么性格的人,积极生活,健康向上!
确实有人有近乎完美的记性,可以从过去经历中检索出大量信息。只是,即使很多人认为这样的记忆已经很完美,他们有的时候也不能准确清晰地记起一些特定的细节。虽然真正完美的记忆并不存在,但你还是可以拥有近乎完美的记忆力,超越这些记忆达人,去抵抗岁月给你带来的疾病和健忘。
2012年有哪些品牌通过社交媒体提升了它们的声誉?哪些公司则越来越差了?
这份报告还指出,中国现在共有594名以美元计的亿万富翁,这一数字超越了美国的535名,但是并没有一名中国富翁进入全球首富前20名。
《何以笙箫默》

一季度河北省完成固定资产投资同比增长5%

References

View Abstract