HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 15:01:43 GMT 双子母性无修在线观看

中天置地再上被“黑”名单 近几年几乎从未缺席

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 卫浴行业整装趋势来袭 卫生间家装定制或成为可能 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

门窗行业发展态势良好 发展势头平稳

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

祝老师新年充满平安和爱。
Agents and investment institutions are now flooding the sector, causing additional changes to the platforms in the world's second-largest economy, the report said.
5. Fred Hersch Trio “Floating” (Palmetto) The articulate grace of Fred Hersch’s current piano trio, with the bassist John Hébert and the drummer Eric McPherson, finds potent expression on an album structured like a nightclub set, with a few retooled standards mixed in with sturdy, emotionally transparent original songs.
答:其实我并不怎么关心作品火不火的,就是专注于自己的作品而已。每次我关注的就是要怎样用最好地推进剧情而已。我关注的是行为和故事,不是受欢迎程度。
我敢保证,魔兽霍华德从未用过生长激素,但在其他人看来,他似乎用了很多。自从离开高中进入NBA后,霍华德的体形似乎翻了一番。
如果你觉得现在的杜兰特骨瘦如柴,那你得瞧瞧他在蒙特罗斯基督教会学校时的瘦弱身板。
梦工厂:内部消费券

"Many companies operating with reduced staff levels are bringing in reinforcements to relieve their overworked teams," notes Max Messmer, Robert Half's chairman and CEO. "While some firms are backfilling positions out of necessity, businesses are also hiring to accommodate anticipated growth in 2011."
“当我刚开始创业的时候,布鲁克林还是个替代选项;而现在,它已经成为一个优选地段了,”霍尔斯特德房地产公司(Halstead Property)的首席执行官黛安娜·M·拉米雷斯(Diane M. Ramirez)说,“我看到皇后区(Queens)正在朝这个方向发展,布朗克斯(Bronx)也不远了。”
The movies were selected from more than 2,000 titles from 100 countries and will be screened in 30 cinemas and colleges around Beijing from April 8 to April 23, Zhang Xiaoguang, deputy head of China Film Archive, said last Thursday.
祝你享尽新年佳节的快乐和新年的礼品。
民主党最有可能的竞争对手、共和党参选人特朗普则对Fox新闻表示,希拉里这是在讨好女性选民。

Footnotes

  • 爱屋吉屋扩张遇烦恼 飞单事件拷问100%真房源承诺
  • A Saudi Woman Who Got Behind the Wheel and Never Looked Back

下面是开发一个商业平台时需要考虑的主要元素。这些元素可以帮助任何新公司制定明智的策略:
3. 捷蓝航空(JetBlue) 品牌喜爱度:40%/排名:218
Here's a look into social media's crystal ball for 2014. Will Snapchat catch fire? Will those annoying Promoted Tweets keep invading your Twitter stream? Will your boss finally learn to tweet? These five trends are poised to shake up the industry and the way we use social media in 2014:
注册人数:511人
“People are used to the Fed saying it will tighten but, in the end, with volatility or other risks on the horizon, policymakers take it back and it’s a case of if in doubt, stay on hold,” Mr Koepke says.
Tom Petty

宜家:家居用品中50%非可再生材料将被回收

References

View Abstract